Russell A. Kirsch (born 1929) is an American former engineer at the National Bureau of Standards who developed the first digital image scanner.

A scanner is a device which uses optical technology to capture a document and create a two-dimensional image which can be stored on a computer.
They are widely used today in both commercial and domestic settings, and are used to create digital copies of photographs, documents and a range of other items.

Types of Scanners:

01: Portable Scanners:
Portable Scanners is generally small in size and it consists of different shapes and is easily portable. There are 4 different types of scanner. I.e:

A) OCR (Optical Character Recognition) Portable Scanners.

B) BCR (Barcode Reader) Portable Scanners.

C) MICR (Magnetic Ink Character Recognition) Portable Scanners.

D) OMR (Optical Mark Recognition) Portable Scanners.

lets see them in Detail!.

A) OCR (Optical Character Recognition) Portable Scanners:

This scanner is a portable handheld scanner that allows you to scan books, letters, photos and more by gliding the scanner over the surface of the page.
Rather than having it hooked up to a PC while you scan, the portable scanner has a microSD card slot so you can copy images directly from the page on to the memory card.
To transfer the images to your computer you can either take out the microSD card and connect that up to a card reader, or attach the portable scanner up to your computer via a USB cable and drag and drop the files as needed.

B) BCR (Barcode Reader) Portable Scanners:

The scanners is thus also called as Optical Scanner.
It is a photoelectric scanner that uses laser beams to read the bar code and identifies codes consisting of vertical lines and spaces of different widths.
It consists of a specialized code represented by sets of parallel bars of varying thickness and separation.

C) MICR (Magnetic Ink Character Recognition) Portable Scanners:

Magnetic Ink Character Recognition (MICR) technology reads iron oxide ink pre-printed or encoded on checks, deposit slips or on documents.
It electronically captures data, by first magnetizing the magnetic ink characters and then sensing the signal.

D) OMR (Optical Mark Recognition) Portable Scanners:

Pure Optical Mark Recognition (OMR) scanners, have only a red LED read head, so that they can only pick up data marks from an OMR form containing bubbles, ovals or lines.
The terms Optical Mark Recognition and Optical Mark Reader are interchangeable.
This scanner is the device we recommend most often, as it works with a variety of OMR software products.
It is robust and reliable, has evolved over many years from previous models (such as the Opscan 2, 3, 4, 4XP, 4U and Insight 4 OMR units) and represents excellent value for money.
Able to process single or double sided sheets, pencil marks, bubble or line format, 40 or 48 tracks, this Optical Mark Reader has a throughput rating of 2800 sheets per hour.
The Opscan 4ES OMR scanner also has an optional select output stacker, and can automatically feed 80-100 sheets through the scanner via its input tray.

02: Flatbed Scanners:


Entry-level flatbed scanners generally share the following specifications:
a) 8-1/2″ x 11″ scanning area, 300 to 400 spi scanning ability (often interpolated to 800, 1200, or 1600 “spi”), 8-bits per color channel, and low cost.
b) They often come bundled with powerful “value-added” software such as Adobe Photoshop.
c) These machines frequently offer excellent price/performance ratio.
d) Because there is fierce competition for this market, at the time of this writing, the magic price for entry-level scanners seems to be hovering around the $1000-$1200 mark.

Advantages of Scanner:

The Advantages of using scanners are:

  • Flatbed scanners are very accurate and can produce reasonably high quality images.
  • Any image which is digitised by the scanner can then be included on electronic documents.
  • Images once digitised can be enhanced with a graphics application.
  • Specialist scanners can convert old material such as 35mm negatives into digital files.
  • Can accurately capture an image, but the original source may be more important than the scanned image.

Disadvantages of Scanner:

The Disadvantages of using scanners are:

  • if there is a blackout, the whole system goes out.
  • Images produced by the scanner can take up a lot of memory space.
  • Images can take up a lot of memory space Images lose some quality in the scanning and digitizing process the quality of the final image is dependent on the quality of the original image.
  • Images lose some quality in the scanning and digitising process.
  • The quality of the final image is dependent on the quality of the original image.